# Foundations of MATHEMATICS

Academic Year 2021/2022 - 2° Year - Curriculum DIDATTICO
Teaching Staff: Maria Flavia MAMMANA
Credit Value: 6
Scientific field: MAT/04 - Mathematics education and history of mathematics
Taught classes: 35 hours
Exercise: 12 hours
Term / Semester:

## Learning Objectives

The main objective of the course is to provide students the conceptual and operational tools to connect as much as possible what has been studied in previous courses. In particular, it aims to provide students with a logical approach to the organization of a mathematical theory with particular emphasis on geometry, arithmetic and set theory.

In particular, the course has the following objectives:

Knowledge and understanding: Know the foundational aspects of mathematics on the set theory, arithmetic, geometry.

Applying knowledge and understanding: Apply the axiomatic method to the construction of the natural numbers, and geometries

Making judgments: Make judgments about the quality of the proposed solution and evaluate its effectiveness. Acquiring critical skills in the areas of mathematics.

Communication skills : Ability to communicate their mathematical knowledge.

Learning skills : Using the knowledge gained to acquire new knowledge.

## Course Structure

The course will take place tuwice a week. An active participation of the students is required: the lessons will be frontal and participated.

Should teaching be carried out in mixed mode or remotely, it may be necessary to introduce changes with respect to previous statements, in line with the programme planned and outlined in the syllabus.

Learning assessment may also be carried out on line, should the conditions require it.

## Detailed Course Content

Logical organization of a mathematical theory: axiomatic theories; propositional calculus and Boolean algebra; predicate calculus. Fundamentals of Geometry: "Elements" of Euclid. Fundamentals of arithmetic: Axioms of Peano axioms and Pieri; enlargements of the concept of number. Mathematical infinity: the problem of infinity in Greek mathematics; the calculus; concept of infinite set; Cantor's theory of sets; cardinality of a countable and continuous; comparison cardinality; paradoxes of set theory; axiomatic set theory; the axiom of choice; segments of a whole well-ordered; Zermelo's theorem; equivalent to the axiom of choice propositions.

## Textbook Information

Attilio Frajese e Lamberto Maccioni (a cura di), Gli Elementi di Euclide, UTET, Torino 1970

Sopra gli assiomi aritmetici, Bollettino dell'Accademia Gioenia Di Scienze Naturali in Catania, 1-2, 1908

M. Kline, Storia del pensiero matematico, Vol.1 e 2. Einaudi, 1999

Throughout the year, students are given notes prepared by the teacher containing the topics treated during the frontal lessons (of Studium ) .